Showing posts from February, 2019

5G Deployment Option-7/7a/7x

Home                 LTE                NB-IoT            5G(NR-NSA) Hi Guys today we are learning about 5G deployment options, if you want to know more about other 5G deployment option please  click here Option 7: Deployment Option 7 represents a deployment scenario in which the Next Generation Core (NGC) will be used with a mixture of LTE and NR radio.  Next Generation signaling will be used but it will be routed via the LTE RAN because the LTE network is more fully built out and thus more reliable for handling signaling.  Options 7 and 7a differ on whether the user plane data is sent to NR directly or via the LTE RAN. 7/7A/7X require an eLTE upgrade of the existing LTE network at the start. (Difference is UP path Non Standalone ( Dual Connectivity 4G/5G ) Option 7/7A: NSA NR in 5GS. This option is particularly attractive for areas in which legacy LTE eNBs and the EPCs are ready to be upgraded to ngeNBs and the 5GCs.  From the point of


Home                 LTE                NB-IoT            5G(NR-NSA) Today we will learn about MIB. In order to understand the role of MIB, let us first see the steps that the device goes through when it is switched on. What happens when a device is powered on ? When a device is powered on, it is not aware of the full system bandwidth. So it does a frequency search, and it first syncs with the DC sub-carrier.  Using this information, the device reads central 6 RBs (72 subcarriers). The primary and secondary synchronization signals (PSS and SSS) and the PBCH (containing the MIB) all are contained in the central 72 subcarriers (6 resource blocks) of the system bandwidth. Initially, the Network allows the device to demodulate just this central region.  On demodulating this info, the device gets the RSSI value using which it initiates Initial Acquisition process. It decodes PSS and SSS for Time and Frame Synchronization. Using this info, the device also finds

VOLTE-Part 1: Overview

Home                 LTE                NB-IoT            5G(NR-NSA) VOLTE-Part 1: Overview Hi guys, we are starting a new series on VoLTE. This is the first post, which introduces the concept of Voice over LTE. Hope you find it informative. Stay tuned for more posts.  Brief introduction of VoLTE Mobile telephony was invented as a technology to transmit human or artificial voice either through wired or wireless medium over long distances. 1G was completely analog in nature. With 2g, wireless communication became digital. This foray into the digital world also allowed mobile devices to transmit not just voice, but data packets to be consumed through mobile screens. Still, the primary focus of this standard was voice and not data. With 3G, 3GPP started taking data seriously and implementation standards were introduced to increase data speeds.   But similar up gradations were not introduced for voice and is still continued to be transmitted using the now called legac

5G Deployment Option-6

Home                 LTE                NB-IoT            5G(NR-NSA)   Hi Guys today we are learning about 5G deployment options, if you want to know more about other 5G deployment option please  click here Option 6: Option 6 signifies a network which has migrated to the NR, but retains EPC as the core network. Here, the original EPC signaling is used between the EPC and NR.  This is a even less likely scenario than Option 3 as any operator that has EPC is likely to already have a LTE network. In the time it will take to phase out LTE, it is likely that the core network will migrate to NGC, thus making this scenario unlikely.

NB-IoT Basics

Home                 LTE                NB-IoT            5G(NR-NSA)   Ever since the advent of wireless communication, the sender/receiver of data has been a human being i.e. the creator and consumer of data has been a human being. But now all that is changing. Due to advances in the technology, machines can now not only communicate with each other without human intervention, but also consume and process that data to serve a purpose. What is MTC? MTC or Machine Type Communication is the technology which has unleashed this potential. Using low-throughput and low latency radio access technologies, machines can communicate with each other in real-time. The data generators are usually sensors incorporated in embedded systems and they send the sensed data to servers where it is processed and also saved in cloud. The servers can also give commands to actuators which are a part of the said embedded systems. Multiple use cases for machine-type communications have b

5G Deployment Option-5

Home                 LTE                NB-IoT            5G(NR-NSA)   Hi Guys today we are learning about 5G deployment options, if you want to know more about other 5G deployment option please  click here Option 5: SA LTE under 5GC In this option, the network has transitioned toward the NGC, but still continues to use LTE access. LTE, in this case, is an evolved LTE RAN which understands the new signaling.  Since most of the benefit of 5G will derive from migrating towards a new radio, this option seems unlikely. Stand Alone (SA) Evolved E-UTRA (LTE) in 5G Standalone (5GS: This deployment scenario is especially suitable for areas which have no legacy LTE system and evolved E-UTRA access systems are deployed. In this deployment, the ng-eNB is connected to the 5GC.

Authentication in LTE

Home                 LTE                NB-IoT            5G(NR-NSA)   What is Authentication and what type of Authentication is used in LTE? Authentication is a process by which both the UE and Network check whether the other party is authorized to communicate with them. In LTE and WCDMA, a mutual authentication process is used i.e. the Network checks whether the UE is authorized to camp on it and the UE also checks whether it is trying to camp on is the correct Network. The UE becomes authorized to camp on a network by subscribing to the network. In LTE, EPS AKA i.e. Authentication Key Agreement procedure is used for Mutual Authentication. Why is Authentication required from both sides in LTE? The UE needs to be authenticated by the NW to check whether it has subscribed to the NW or not. Only UEs which have a valid subscription should be allowed to camp on the NW. The NW should also be authenticated by the UE because if the UE does not check its